No injuries have been reported from the incident.
According to an Associated Press report, the Union Pacific cars left the tracks at about 1am local time on Sunday in Fairbury, Jefferson County.
The train was reportedly headed for St Louis, Missouri.
The AP said accident clean-up and removal of the damaged railcars was being performed by UP crews on Sunday afternoon with heavy equipment.
The cause of the incident and the time it may take to clear the wreckage were not known at press time.