Dalyrmple Bay Coal terminal exported 69.5Mt, while Port of Gladstone, which includes the Wiggins Island Coal Export Terminal and RG Tanna, exported 67.9Mt.
The total export figures surpassed the previous record by 2Mt, which was set in 2016, according to Queensland Resources Council CEO Ian Macfarlane.
"Countries around the world are using our metallurgical coal to make steel needed for building modern cities and our high quality thermal coal is delivering tomorrow's energy needs through high efficiency, low emission coal-fired power plants," he said.
"Green activists continue to claim the world is turning away from coal but the data proves it's an essential ingredient for the world economy to grow."
Queensland coal was exported to 30 different countries or territories - Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, England, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Italy, Gibraltar, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Philippines, Poland, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Vietnam and Wales.
"This record can only be achieved through the hard work and world-class standards set by the 215,000 Queenslanders who work in or with the coal industry," Macfarlane said.
"According to the International Energy Agency, Australia's net exports of coal is forecast to increase by 20% by 2040 while the Office of the Chief Economist said Australia's coal earnings are on target to generate more than $67 billion in 2018-19 making it Australia's largest commodity export."
QRC's economic data shows the coal industry contributed $43.4 billion to the state's economy in 2017-18 and invested $13.1 billion with local businesses and community organisations.